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CSS INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

Questions : 1     Wht is a CSS File? It is used for what purpose
CSS stands for "Cascading Style Sheets", and are used to control and manage font styles, font sizes, and web site color combinations that are used in a web page. In order to retain continuity of "look and feel" throughout a website, all pages within a website will often refer to a single CSS file. The CSS file is typically contained in a separate file from the website, and the various web pages retrieve the CSS file each time a web page is displayed. CSS files make global appearance changes easy -- a single change in a CSS file will mean that any pages using that CSS file will automatically display the changes
     
Questions : 2     How do I make a picture as a background on my web pages?
Answers :   

Point the body background to the name of your image you wish to use as the background as shown below. This body line should be the first line after your < / head> tag.
< body background="picture.gif" >
You can also have the background image fixed, so it does not move when using the scroll bar in the browser. To do this add the BGPROPERTIES tag as shown below. < body background="picture.gif" bgproperties="fixed" >
     
Questions : 3     How do I add scrolling text to my page?
Answers : 3    

Keep in mind not all browsers support scrolling text. however to do this add a tag similar to the below example. < marquee >THIS WOULD SCROLL< /marquee> The above example would create the below scrolling text. If your browser supports scrolling text the below example should be scrolling. More examples can be found on our main HTML page that lists most of the HTML commands.
     
Questions : 4     How do I make it so that someone can mail me by just clicking on text with subject?
Answers : 4    

Use the mailto command in your A HREF link tag as shown below. < A HREF="mailto:support@computerhope.com?Subject=Enquiry" ">Click here to mail Computer Hope< / A> .
     
Questions : 5     How do I align pictures so that one may be higher or lower than the other?
Answers : 5    

Use the align statement in your IMG SRC tag as shown below. < IMG SRC="http://www.computerhope.com/chguy.gif" align=top > Also, instead of align=top you can do align=middle, and align=bottom. .
     
Questions : 6     What is external Style Sheet? How to link?
Answers : 6    

External Style Sheet is a template/document/file containing style information which can be linked with any number of HTML documents. This is a very convenient way of formatting the entire site as well as restyling it by editing just one file. The file is linked with HTML documents via the LINK element inside the HEAD element. Files containing style information must have extension .css, e.g. style.css. < HEAD > < LINK REL=STYLESHEET HREF="style.css" TYPE="text/css"> < / HEAD>
     
Questions : 7     Is CSS case sensitive?
Answers : 7    

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is not case sensitive. However, font families, URLs to images, and other direct references with the style sheet may be. The trick is that if you write a document using an XML declaration and an XHTML doctype, then the CSS class names will be case sensitive for some browsers. It is a good idea to avoid naming classes where the only difference is the case, for example: div.myclass { ...} div.myClass { ... } If the DOCTYPE or XML declaration is ever removed from your pages, even by mistake, the last instance of the style will be used, regardless of case.
     
Questions : 8     What are the five possible values for “position”?
Answers : 8    

Values for position: static, relative, absolute, fixed, inherit
     
Questions : 9     How does the browser determine where to place positioned elements?
Answers : 9    

How does the browser determine where to place positioned elements?
     
Questions : 10     What are JavaScript types?
Answers : 10    

: Number, String, Boolean, Function, Object, Null, Undefined.
     
Questions : 11     What does isNaN function do?
Answers : 11    

Return true if the argument is not a number.
     
Questions : 12     How do you convert numbers between different bases in JavaScript?
Answers : 12    

Use the parseInt() function, that takes a string as the first parameter, and the base as a second parameter. So to convert hexadecimal 3F to decimal, use parseInt ("3F", 16);
     
Questions : 13     What is negative infinity?
Answers : 13    

It’s a number in JavaScript, derived by dividing negative number by zero.
     
Questions : 14     What does "1"+2+4 evaluate to?
Answers : 14    

Since 1 is a string, everything is a string, so the result is 124.
     
Questions : 15     What is the difference between an alert box and a confirmation box?
Answers : 15    

An alert box displays only one button which is the OK button whereas the Confirm box displays two buttons namely OK and cancel.
     
Questions : 16     What is a prompt box?
Answers : 16    

A prompt box allows the user to enter input by providing a text box.
     
Questions : 17     What is work Area in photoshop?
Answers : 17    

The work area can be intimidating to work with because of all the complex functionality but with a quick breakdown of the available features and their uses, you will be ready to comfortably navigate the work area with ease. The work area in Photoshop has the following basic functionality and features: ? Menu Bar ? this is where you can access most of the commands and features in Photoshop ? Drawing Palette ? where the image being worked on will appear ? Options bar ? content sensitive display of tool options ? changes as different tools are selected ? display using Window > Options or Click a tool in the toolbox. Lasso options bar ? Tool box - for creating an editing images (display or hide using Windows > Tools) ? Palettes - to monitor and modify images (there are 5 palettes by default) ? Palette Well - to organize palettes in work area ? Drag a palette?s tab into the palette well to store it in the palette well ? Once in the palette well click on the palette tab to use it
     
Questions : 18     How Can you organize layers as in photoshop?
Answers : 18    

Yes we can organize layes.. For example you create a Ball in 1st layer and then in second layer you create the background. But you should lock all the layers and unlock the layer which u r working, because unlocked layers will be active always(active means, if u want to drage the ball, backgroung layers also will be affected)


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Which set of definitions, HTML attributes or CSS properties, take precedence?
CSS properties take precedence over HTML attributes. If both are specified, HTML attributes will be displayed in browsers without CSS support but won’t have any effect in browsers with CSS support.

How do I eliminate the blue border around linked images?
in your CSS, you can specify the border property for linked images:

a img { border: none ; }
However, note that removing the border that indicates an image is a link makes it harder for users to distinguish quickly and easily which images on a web page are clickable.

Why call the subtended angle a “pixel”, instead of something else (e.g. “subangle”)?
In most cases, a CSS pixel will be equal to a device pixel. But, as you point out, the definition of a CSS pixel will sometimes be different. For example, on a laser printer, one CSS pixel can be equal to 3×3 device pixels to avoid printing illegibly small text and images. I don’t recall anyone ever proposing another name for it. Subangle? Personally, I think most people would prefer the pragmatic “px” to the non-intuitive “sa”.

Why was the decision made to make padding apply outside of the width of a ‘box’, rather than inside, which would seem to make more sense?
It makes sense in some situations, but not in others. For example, when a child element is set to width: 100%, I don’t think it should cover the padding of its parent. The box-sizing property in CSS3 addresses this issue. Ideally, the issue should have been addressed earlier, though.

How to use CSS to separate content and design ?
The idea here is that all sites contain two major parts, the content: all your articles, text and photos and the design: rounded corners, colors and effects. Usually those two are made in different parts of a webpage?s lifetime. The design is determined at the beginning and then you start filling it with content and keep the design fixed.

In CSS you just add the nifty -tag I’ve told you about to the head of your HTML document and you have created a link to your design. In the HTML document you put content only, and that link of yours makes sure it looks right. You can also use the exact same link on many of your pages, giving them all of them the same design. You want to add content? Just write a plain HTML document and think about marking things up like ?header? instead of ?big blue header? and use CSS to make all headers look the way you want!

Some examples of good and bad coding. What’s wrong with this?
Welcome to my page

Comment: The font-tag is design and design shouldn?t be in the HTML document. All design should be in the CSS-file! Instead do this:

In the HTML:
Welcome to my page

In the CSS:
h1 { font-size: 2em; }

One more example:

An error occurred

This looks right doesn?t it? But if you look up what stands for you quickly find bold. But bold is certainly design, so it still doesn?t belong in the HTML document. A better choice is that stands for emphasis or simply ?this piece of text is important?. So instead of saying ?this text looks like this? you are saying ?this text is important? and you let the looks be decided by the CSS. Seems like a minor change, but it illustrates how to select your tags. Use this instead:

In the HTML:
An error occured

In the CSS:
em {
font-weight: bold;
color: Red;
}

One last example:


first link
second link

Can CSS be used with other than HTML documents?
Yes. CSS can be used with any ny structured document format. e.g. XML, however, the method of linking CSS with other document types has not been decided yet.

Can Style Sheets and HTML stylistic elements be used in the same document?
Yes. Style Sheets will be ignored in browsers without CSS-support and HTML stylistic elements used.

What are pseudo-classes?
Pseudo-classes are fictional element types that do not exist in HTML. In CSS1 there is only one element type which can be classed this way, namely the A element (anchor). By creating three fictional types of the A element individual style can be attached to each class. These three fictional element types are: A as unvisited link, A as active link and A as visited link. Pseudo-classes are created by a colon followed by pseudo-class’s name. They can also be combined with normal classes, e.g.:

A:link {background: black; color: white}
A:active {background: black; color: red}
A:visited {background: transparent; color: black}

This anchor (or rather these anchors) will be displayed as declared above

A.foot:link {background: black; color: white}
A.foft:active {background; black: color: red}
A.foot:visited {background: transparent; color: black}

This anchor and all other anchors with CLASS foot will be displayed as declared above

How do I design for backward compatibility using Style Sheets?
Existing HTML style methods (such as and ) may be easily combined with style sheet specification methods. Browsers that do not understand style sheets will use the older HTML formatting methods, and style sheets specifications can control the appearance of these elements in browsers that support CSS1.

As a reader, how can I make my browser recognize my own style sheet?
Netscape
It is not possible to do this in Netscape yet (as of version 4.0.)
Internet Explorer 3.0 (Win95/NT)
[It is possible to do this at least in Windows95/NT, but no user interface is provided. Unknown how this might be accomplished on other operating systems.]

1. Open the Registry editor (Start..Run..regedit..ENTER)
2. Under the ‘HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\InternetExplorer\Styles’ key, Edit..New..String Value
3. The new value should be called ‘StyleSheet Pathname’
4. For the value, type in the full directory path of your .css style sheet.

Internet Explorer 4.0 (Win95/NT)

1. Under the View menu, select ‘Internet Options’.
2. Under the ‘General’ tab, choose the ‘Accessibility’ button.
3. Choose the ‘Format documents using my style sheet’ check box and ‘Browse…’ to the location of your .css style sheet.

How do I get rid of the gap under my image?
Images are inline elements, which means they are treated in the same way as text. Most people kind of know this – they know that if you use ‘text-align:center’ on an image it will be centred. What many people don’t realise is that this means you will have a gap underneath an image. This gap is for the descenders of letters like j,q,p,y and g. To get rid of this gap you need to make the image block-level – like this :

CSS
img {display:block;}

One problem that this can cause is when you want to have a few images next to each other – if they are block-level, they won’t be next to each other. To get around that, you can use float:left. Of course, this might present another problem – maybe you don’t want the image to float left. In this case, you can use an unordered list like this :

CSS
ul, li {
list-style-type:none;
padding:0;
margin:0 auto;
}
ul {
width:150px;
}
li {
float:left;
}
HTML


Why use Style Sheets?
Style sheets allow a much greater degree of layout and display control than has ever been possible thus far in HTML. The amount of format coding necessary to control display characteristics can be greatly reduced through the use of external style sheets which can be used by a group of documents. Also, multiple style sheets can be integrated from different sources to form a cohesive tapestry of styles for a document. Style sheets are also backward compatible – They can be mixed with HTML styling elements and attributes so that older browsers can view content as intended.

What does the “Cascading” in “Cascading Style Sheets” mean?
Style Sheets allow style information to be specified from many locations. Multiple (partial) external style sheets can be referenced to reduce redundancy, and both authors as well as readers can specify style preferences. In addition, three main methods can be employed by an author to add style information to HTML documents, and multiple approaches for style control are available in each of these methods. In the end, style can be specified for a single element using any, or all, of these methods. What style is to be used when there is a direct conflict between style specifications for an element?
Cascading comes to the rescue. A document can have styles specified using all of these methods, but all the information will be reduced to a single, cohesive “virtual” Style Sheet. Conflict resolution is based on each style rule having an assigned weight according to its importance in the scheme of things. A rule with a higher overall importance will carry a higher weight. This will be used in place of a competing style rule with a lower weight/importance. A hierarchy of competing styles is thus formed creating a “cascade” of styles according to their assigned weights. The algorithm used to determine this cascading weight scale is fairly complex.

What is CSS rule ‘at-rule’?
There are two types of CSS rules: ruleset and at-rule. At-rule is a rule that applies to the whole style sheet and not to a specific selector only (like in ruleset). They all begin with the @ symbol followed by a keyword made up of letters a-z, A-Z, digits 0-9, dashes and escaped characters, e.g. @import or @font-face.

What is selector?
CSS selector is equivalent of HTML element(s). It is a string identifying to which element(s) the corresponding declaration(s) will apply and as such the link between the HTML document and the style sheet.
For example in P {text-indent: 10pt} the selector is P and is called type selector as it matches all instances of this element type in the document.
in P, UL {text-indent: 10pt} the selector is P and UL (see grouping); in .class {text-indent: 10pt} the selector is .class (see class selector).

What is CLASS selector?
Class selector is a “stand alone” class to which a specific style is declared. Using the CLASS attribute the declared style can then be associated with any HTML element. The class selectors are created by a period followed by the class’s name. The name can contain characters a-z, A-Z, digits 0-9, period, hyphen, escaped characters, Unicode characters 161-255, as well as any Unicode character as a numeric code, however, they cannot start with a dash or a digit. (Note: in HTML the value of the CLASS attribute can contain more characters).It is a good practice to name classes according to their function than their appearance.

.footnote {font: 70%} /* class as selector */
This element is associated with the CLASS footnote


And so is this

What is CSS declaration?
CSS declaration is style attached to a specific selector. It consists of two parts; property which is equivalent of HTML attribute, e.g. text-indent: and value which is equivalent of HTML value, e.g. 10pt. NOTE: properties are always ended with a colon.

What is ‘important’ declaration?
Important declaration is a declaration with increased weight. Declaration with increased weight will override declarations with normal weight. If both reader’s and author’s style sheet contain statements with important declarations the author’s declaration will override the reader’s.

BODY {background: white ! important; color: black}

In the example above the background property has increased weight while the color property has normal.

What is cascade?
Cascade is a method of defining the weight (importance) of individual styling rules thus allowing conflicting rules to be sorted out should such rules apply to the same selector.

Declarations with increased weight take precedence over declaration with normal weight:

P {color: white ! important} /* increased weight */
P (color: black} /* normal weight */

Are Style Sheets case sensitive?
No. Style sheets are case insensitive. Whatever is case insensitive in HTML is also case insensitive in CSS. However, parts that are not under control of CSS like font family names and URLs can be case sensitive – IMAGE.gif and image.gif is not the same file.

How do I make my div 100% height?
You need to know what the 100% is of, so the parent div must have a height set. One problem that people often come up against is making the main page fill the screen if there’s little content. You can do that like this :
CSS
body, html {
height:100%;
}
body {
margin:0;
padding:0;
}
#wrap {
position:relative;
min-height:100%;
}
* html #wrap {
height:100%;
}

Here, the #wrap div goes around your whole page – it’s like a sub-body.

You need to use ‘min-height’ rather than ‘height’ for Firefox because otherwise it will set it to 100% of the viewport and no more. Internet Explorer, being well… crap, treats ‘height’ as it should be treating ‘min-height’ which it doesn’t recognise. (You can target IE by preceding your code with ‘ * html ‘).

To make floated divs within this #wrap div 100% of the #wrap div… well that’s more difficult. I think the best way is to use the ‘faux columns’ technique which basically means that you put the background in your body rather than your columns. If the body has columns and your floats don’t then it looks like your floated content is in a column that stretches to the bottom of the page. I’ve used this technique in my layout demos.

The problem is often not that the columns aren’t 100% height, but that they’re not equal lengths. Columns usually don’t start from the top of the page and end at the bottom – there’s often a header and a footer or sometimes, more interesting designs don’t have a recognisable columnar layout, but do require div boxes to be equal heights. This can be done with the aid of a couple of images and some css or with some javascript.

What is property?
Property is a stylistic parameter (attribute) that can be influenced through CSS, e.g. FONT or WIDTH. There must always be a corresponing value or values set to each property, e.g. font: bold or font: bold san-serif.

How do I write my style sheet so that it gracefully cascades with user’s personal sheet ?
You can help with this by setting properties in recommended places. Style rules that apply to the whole document should be set in the BODY element — and only there. In this way, the user can easily modify document-wide style settings.

What are pseudo-elements?
Pseudo-elements are fictional elements that do not exist in HTML. They address the element’s sub-part (non-existent in HTML) and not the element itself. In CSS1 there are two pseudo-elements: ‘first-line pseudo-element’ and ‘first-letter pseudo-element’. They can be attached to block-level elements (e.g. paragraphs or headings) to allow typographical styling of their sub-parts. Pseudo-element is created by a colon followed by pseudo-element’s name, e.g:

P:first-line
H1:first-letter

and can be combined with normal classes; e.g:

P.initial:first-line

First-line pseudo-element allows sub-parting the element’s first line and attaching specific style exclusively to this sub-part; e.g.:

P.initial:first-line {text-transform: uppercase}

The first line of this paragraph will be displayed in uppercase letters

First-letter pseudo-element allows sub-parting the element’s first letter and attaching specific style exclusively to this sub-part; e.g.:

P.initial:first-letter { font-size: 200%; color: red}

The first letter of this paragraph will be displayed in red and twice as large as the remaining letters

As a developer who works with CSS every day, I find one complication that continues to bother me in my daily work. Support for CSS has always been good on the horizontal scope, but vertical positioning has always been quite complicated. Alone the procedure to affix a footer to the bottom of a screen in dependance of the amount of content is unnecessarily difficult. The old table method provided much easier methods for this. What are your thoughts on this and do you see improvement following in future CSS revisions?
Indeed, the CSS formatting model allows more control horizontally than vertically. This is due to (typically) having a known width, but an unknown height. As such, the height is harder to deal with. However, CSS2 fixed positioning allows you to place content relative to the viewport (which is CSS-speak for window) instead of the document. For example, by setting position: fixed; bottom: 0 on an element, it will stick to the bottom. This works in Opera, Safari and Mozilla-based browsers. IE6 doesn’t support it, however. It remains to be seen if IE7 will support it.

How can I make a page look the same in e.g. NS and MSIE ?
The simple answer is, you can’t, and you shouldn’t waste your time trying to make it exactly the same. Web browsers are allowed, per definition, to interpret a page as they like, subject to the general rules set down in the HTML and CSS specifications. As a web author you can not have a prior knowledge of the exact situation and/or medium that will be used to render your page, and it’s almost always rather counterproductive to try to control that process. There is no necessity for a well-written page to look the same in different browsers. You may want to strive to ensure that it looks good in more than one browser, even if the actual display (in the case of graphical browsers) comes out a bit different. “Looking good” can be achieved by adopting sensible design and guidelines, such as not fixing the size or face of your fonts, not fixing the width of tables, etc? Don’t fight the medium; most web users only use one browser and will never know, or bother to find out, that your page looks different, or even “better”, in any other browser.

Is there anything that CAN’T be replaced by Style Sheets?
Quite a bit actually. Style sheets only specify information that controls display and rendering information. Virtual style elements that convey the NATURE of the content can not be replaced by style sheets, and hyperlinking and multimedia object insertion is not a part of style sheet functionality at all (although controlling how those objects appear IS part of style sheets functionality.) The CSS1 specification has gone out of its way to absorb ALL of the HTML functionality used in controlling display and layout characteristics. For more information on the possible properties in CSS, see the Index DOT Css Property Index.
Rule of Thumb: if an HTML element or attribute gives cues as to how its contents should be displayed, then some or all of its functionality has been absorbed by style sheets.

Can I include comments in my Style Sheet?
Yes. Comments can be written anywhere where whitespace is allowed and are treated as white space themselves. Anything written between /* and */ is treated as a comment (white space). NOTE: Comments cannot be nested.

What is the difference between ID and CLASS?
ID identifies and sets style to one and only one occurrence of an element while class can be attached to any number of elements. By singling out one occurrence of an element the unique value can be declared to said element.

CSS
#eva1 {background: red; color: white}
.eva2 {background: red; color: white}

HTML – ID

Paragraph 1 – ONLY THIS occurrence of the element P (or single occurrence of some other element) can be identified as eva1


Paragraph 2 – This occurrence of the element P CANNOT be identified as eva1

HTML – CLASS

Paragraph 1 – This occurrence of the element P can be classified as eva2


Paragraph 2 – And so can this, as well as occurrences of any other element,

How to make text-links without underline?
a:link, a:visited {text-decoration: none}

or

…will show the links without underlining. However, suppressing the underlining of links isn’t a very smart idea as most people are used to having them underlined. Also, such links are not spotted unless someone coincidentally runs a mouse over them. If, for whatever reason, links without underline are required background and foreground colors can be instead declared to them so that they can be distinguished from other text, e.g.;

a:link, a:visited {text-decoration: none; background: red; color: blue}

or

Both background and foreground colors should be specified as the property that is not specified can be overridden by user’s own settings.

How do you make a tool tip that appears on hover?
The most simple way is to use the ‘title’ attribute like this…

HTML
like this

CSS
a.tooltip {
position:relative;
cursor:help;
}
a.tooltip span {
display: none;
position:absolute;
top:1.5em;
left:0;
width:15em;
padding:0 2px;
}
a.tooltip:hover {
display:inline;
}
a.tooltip:hover span {
display:block;
border:1px solid gray;
background-color:white;
}

HTML

Karl Marx-info goes here-

Without this part… a.tooltip:hover {
display:inline;
}

..it won’t work in IE.

The “#n” in the link is to prevent the page from jumping to the top if the link is clicked. The “href” part is necessary as it won’t work in IE without it.

Which characters can CSS-names contain?
The CSS-names; names of selectors, classes and IDs can contain characters a-z, A-Z, digits 0-9, period, hyphen, escaped characters, Unicode characters 161-255, as well as any Unicode character as a numeric code. The names cannot start with a dash or a digit. (Note: in HTML the value of the CLASS attribute can contain more characters).

What browsers support style sheets? To what extent?
Microsoft’s Internet Explorer version 3.0 Beta 2 and above supports CSS, as does Netscape Communicator 4.0 Beta 2 and above and Opera 3.5 and above. Take note that the early implementations in these browsers did not support ALL of the properties and syntax described in the full CSS1 specification and beyond. Later versions have been getting much closer to full CSS1 compliance, but then comes the next hurdle – CSS2…it was such a big leap over CSS1 that it has taken the browsers years to come close to supporting a majority of CSS2′s features. Mozilla and Opera’s current versions both offer excellent CSS standards compliance. The Macintosh version of Internet Explorer is said to be very impressive in its CSS capabilities as well, but PC IE lags behind these implementations. Quite a few other implementations of CSS now exist in browsers that are not as widely-used (such as Amaya, Arena and Emacs-W3), but coverage of features in these documents currently only covers Internet Explorer, NCSA Mosaic, Netscape and Opera browsers.

What is cascading order?
Cascading order is a sorting system consisting of rules by which declarations are sorted out so that there are not conflicts as to which declaration is to influence the presentation. The sorting begins with rule no 1. If a match is found the search is over. If there is no match under rule no 1 the search continues under rule no 2 and so on.

1. Find all declarations that apply to a specific selector/property and Declare the specified style if the selector matches the element if there isn’t any Let the element inherit its parent property if there isn’t any Use initial value

2. Sort by weight (! important) Increased weight take precedence over normal weight

3. Sort by origin Rules with normal weight declared in author’s style sheet will override rules with normal weight declared in user’s personal style sheets Rules with increased weight declared in user’s personal style sheet will override rules with normal weight declared in author’s style sheet Rules with increased weight declared in author’s style sheet will override rules with increased weight declared in user’s personal style sheets Author’s and user’s rules will override UA’s default style sheet.

4. Sort by selector’s specificity More specific selector will override less specific one: ID-selector (most specific), followed by Classified contextual selectors (TABLE P EM.fot) Class selectors (EM.fot) Contextual selectors – the “lower down” the more weight, (TABLE P EM), (TABLE P EM STRONG) – STRONG has more weight than EM.

5. Sort by order specified If two rules have the same weight, the latter specified overrides ones specified earlier. Style sheets are sorted out as follows: The STYLE attribute (inline style) overrides all other styles The Style element (embedded style) overrides linked and imported sheets The LINK element (external style) overrides imported style The @import statement – imported style sheets also cascade with each other in the same order as they are imported

Why shouldn’t I use fixed sized fonts ?
Only in very rare situations we will find users that have a “calibrated” rendering device that shows fixed font sizes correct. This tells us that we can never know the real size of a font when it’s rendered on the user end. Other people may find your choice of font size uncomfortable. A surprisingly large number of people have vision problems and require larger text than the average. Other people have good eyesight and prefer the advantage of more text on the screen that a smaller font size allows. What is comfortable to you on your system may be uncomfortable to someone else. Browsers have a default size for fonts. If a user finds this inappropriate, they can change it to something they prefer. You can never assume that your choice is better for them. So, leave the font size alone for the majority of your text. If you wish to change it in specific places (say smaller text for a copyright notice at the bottom of page), use relative units so that the size will stay in relationship to what the user may have selected already. Remember, if people find your text uncomfortable, they will not bother struggling with your web site. Very few (if any) web sites are important enough to the average user to justify fighting with the author’s idea of what is best.

How do you make a whole div into a link?
You can’t put ‘a’ tags around a div, but you can do this with javascript :

HTML
… stuff goes here …

If you want to use an empty div with a background image as a link instead of putting your image into the html, you can do something like this:

CSS
#empty {
background-image:url(wine.jpg);
width:50px;
height:50px;
margin:auto;
}
#empty a {
display:block;
height:50px;
}
* html #empty a {
display:inline-block;
}

HTML

How do I have links of different colors on the same page?
Recommending people to use classes in their ‘a’ tags like this :

CSS
a.red {
color:red;
}
a.blue {
color:blue;
}

HTML
A red link
A blue link

This is a valid way to do it, but usually, this isn’t what a page looks like – two links next to each other with different colours – it’s usually something like a menu with one kind of link and main body text or another menu with different links. In this (normal) situation, To go higher up the cascade to style the links. Something like this :

CSS
a {
color:red;
}
#menu a {
color:blue;
}

HTML

    A red link
    A red link

There’s a blue link here.

What is shorthand property?
Shorthand property is a property made up of individual properties that have a common “addressee”. For example properties: font-weight, font-style, font-variant, font-size, font-family, refer to the font. To reduce the size of style sheets and also save some keystrokes as well as bandwidth they can all be specified as one shorthand property font, e.g.:

H1 {font-weight: bold;
font-style: italic;
font-variant: small-caps;
font-size: 160%;
font-family: serif}

can be all shorthanded to a space separated list:

H1 {font: bold italic small-caps 160% serif}

Note: To make things even simpler the line-height property can be specified together with the font-size property:

H1 {font: bold italic small-caps 160%/170% serif}

How to use CSS building a standards based HTML template?
It should:
1. Contain: header, navigation, content, footer
2. Use well-structured HTML
3. Be error-free and encourage good coding

Let?s start with number one there:

HTML document split up in four parts all with different meaning, use the
-tag. Div is short for ?division? and isn?t header, navigation and so on …

!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC “-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN”>

Your own page title
The name of this page
Navigation

    First
    Second
    Third

Content

Some sample content, add your own here

This page is written by [Your name] and builds
n a
Friendlybit template.

body {
background-color: Green;
}
div {
border: 3px solid Black;
padding: 7px;
width: 600px;
}
h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6 {
margin: 0;
}

#navigation {
float: left;
width: 150px;
}
#content {
float: left;
width: 430px;
}
#footer {
clear: both;
}

What is value?
Value is a ‘physical’ characteristic of the property. Property declares what should be formatted, e.g. FONT while value suggests how the property should be formatted, e.g. 12pt. By setting the value 12pt to the property FONT it is suggested that the formatted text be displayed in a 12 point font. There must always be a corresponding property to each value or set of values.

H1 {font: bold 180%}
In the example above the H1 selector is declared the FONT property which in its turn is declared the values BOLD and 180%.
The values suggesting alternatives are specified in a comma separated list, e.g.
H1 {font-family: font1, font2}

What is initial value?
Initial value is a default value of the property, that is the value given to the root element of the document tree. All properties have an initial value. If no specific value is set and/or if a property is not inherited the initial value is used. For example the background property is not inherited, however, the background of the parent element shines through because the initial value of background property is transparent.

Hello World


Content of the element P will also have red background How frustrating is it to write a specification knowing that you’re at the browser vendors’ mercy?
That’s part of the game. I don’t think any specification has a birthright to be fully supported by all browsers. There should be healthy competition between different specifications. I believe simple, author-friendly specifications will prevail in this environment.
Microformats are another way of developing new formats. Instead of having to convince browser vendors to support your favorite specification, microformats add semantics to HTML through the CLASS attribute. And style it with CSS.

How far can CSS be taken beyond the web page–that is, have generalized or non-web specific features for such things as page formatting or type setting?
Yes, it’s possible to take CSS further in several directions. W3C just published a new Working Draft which describes features for printing, e.g., footnotes, cross-references, and even generated indexes.
Another great opportunity for CSS is Web Applications. Just like documents, applications need to be styled and CSS is an intrinsic component of AJAX. The “AJAX” name sounds great.

How To Style Table Cells?
Margin, Border and Padding are difficult to apply to inline elements. Officially, the




tag is a block level element because it can contain other block level elements (see Basics – Elements).
If you need to set special margins, borders, or padding inside a table cell, then use this markup: yourtext

to apply the CSS rules to the div inside the cell.

How To Style Forms?
Forms and form elements like SELECT, INPUT etc. can be styled with CSS – partially.
Checkboxes and Radiobuttons do not yet accept styles, and Netscape 4.xx has certain issues, but here is a tutorial that explains the application of CSS Styles on Form Elements.

How do I get my footer to sit at the bottom…?
Need a div which makes space at the bottom of the main page (inside the #wrap div). Then, the footer (being inside #wrap) can be placed in that space by using absolute positioning. Like this :

CSS body, html {
height:100%;
}
body {
margin:0;
padding:0;
}
#wrap {
position:relative;
width:780px;
margin:auto; min-height:100%;
}
* html #wrap {
height:100%;
}
#clearfooter {
height:50px;
overflow:hidden;
}
#footer {
position:absolute;
bottom:0;
width:100%;
height:50px;
}

HTML
…content goes here…

Footer

Can I attach more than one declaration to a selector?
Yes. If more than one declaration is attached to a selector they must appear in a semi colon separated list, e.g.;

Selector {declaration1; declaration2}
P {background: white; color: black}

Border around a table?
Try the following:

.tblboda {
border-width: 1px;
border-style: solid;
border-color: #CCCCCC;
}
/*color, thickness and style can be altered*/

You put this style declaration either in
an external stylesheet, or you can stuff it in
the section, like:

(here you can place your styles)

and apply it to the table as follows:
Content text and more content

That should give you a grey thin border around this table.

If you want the border to ‘shrink wrap’ around the table, then you have to use the tag instead the
tag. But that is not quite proper CSS or HTML, because a is for inline elements. A table is not an inline element, therefore the correct tag is a
. If you play around with it a bit then you have a good chance to achieve what you want and still have correct HTML/CSS.The other way would be that you apply the class .tblboda directly to the table (for IE and other contemporary browsers), like

and you define another class for each stylesheet: .tblboda2In the NN4.xx stylesheet, you use the same properties as above, and in the IE and other contemporary browsers you carefully set all those properties to default, like {border-style: none;}

Then you wrap the table in the
with the class .tblboda2 (NN4.xx does that) (IE a.o.c.b. don’t do anything, because the border-style is set to “none” = no border at all).This way you have a table that is wrapped in a nice little border: .tblboda2 for NN4.xx, .tblboda for IE and other modern browsers.

How do you target a certain browser?
IE can be targetted by preceding your properties with ‘* html’. For example…

#nav {
position:fixed;
}
* html #nav { /* this will target IE */
position:absolute;
}

Another way to target IE is with conditional comments. Put this (below) in the head – just before the closing tag – and put anything you want to be directed only at IE in another stylesheet.

If you need to target IE5x…

#wrap {
width:760px; /* for IE5x */
w\idth:780px; /* for all other major browsers */
}

How does inheritance work?
HTML documents are structured hierarchically. There is an ancestor, the top level element, the HTML element, from which all other elements (children) are descended. As in any other family also children of the HTML family can inherit their parents, e.g. color or size.

By letting the children inherit their parents a default style can be created for top level elements and their children. (Note: not all properties can be inherited). The inheritance starts at the oldest ancestor and is passed on to its children and then their children and the children’s children and so on.

Inherited style can be overridden by declaring specific style to child element. For example if the EM element is not to inherit its parent P then own style must be declared to it. For example:

BODY {font-size: 10pt}
All text will be displayed in a 10 point font

BODY {font-size: 10pt}
H1 {font-size: 14pt} or H1 {font-size: 180%}

All text except for the level 1 headings will be displayed in a 10 point font. H1 will be displayed in a 14 point font (or in a font that is 80% larger than the one set to BODY). If the element H1 contains other elements, e.g. EM then the EM element will also be displayed in a 14 point font (or 180%) it will inherit the property of the parent H1. If the EM element is to be displayed in some other font then own font properties must be declared to it, e.g.:

BODY {font-size: 10pt}
H1 {font-size: 14pt} or H1 {font-size: 180%}
EM {font-size: 15pt} or EM {font-size: 110%}

The EM element will be displayed in a 15 point font or will be 10% larger than H1. NOTE: EM is, in this example, inside H1 therefore will inherit H1′s properties and not Body’s.

The above declaration will display all EM elements in 15 point font or font that is 10% larger than font declared to the parent element. If this specific font is to apply to EM elements but only if they are inside H1 and not every occurrence of EM then EM must take a form of a contextual selector.

H1 EM {font-size: 15pt} or H1 EM {font-size: 110%}

In the example above EM is a contextual selector. It will be displayed in specified font only if it will be found in the context of H1.

Not all properties are inherited. One such property is background. However, since it’s initial value is transpar

What is the percentage value in ‘font-size’ relative to?
It is relative to the parent element’s font-size. For example, if the style sheet says:

H1 {font-size: 20pt;}
SUP {font-size: 80%;}

…then a inside an
will have a font-size of 80% times 20pt, or 16pt.What is wrong with font-family: “Verdana, Arial, Helvetica”?
The quotes. This is actually a list with a single item containing the well-known ‘Verdana, Arial, Helvetica’ font family. It is probably intended to be a list of three items.

Unlike in most other CSS1 properties, values for the font-family are separated by a comma to indicate that they are alternatives. Font names containing whitespace should be quoted. If quoting is omitted, any whitespace characters before and after the font name are ignored and any sequence of whitespace characters inside the font name is converted to a single space.

So to ask for two fonts foo and bar the syntax is:

font-family: foo, bar

To ask for the two fonts Revival 555 and Iodine you can do this:

font-family: “Revival 555″, Iodine

You could also do this:

font-family: Revival 555, Iodine

which is equivalent. Notice that this is not three fonts; you can tell because after the “l” you didn’t hit a comma, (more list items to come) a semicolon (end of that property, another property coming up) or a curly brace (end of that rule). This is also equivalent:

font-family: Revival 555, Iodine

^^^^^^ whole bunch of spaces converts to one space

But this next one is asking for a different font with two spaces in the name

font-family: “Revival 555″, Iodine
^^two spaces, which are not converted

In general it is more tolerant of user typing to leave out the quotes. Sometimes you need them, for example there is a real font sold by Fontworks and designed in 1995 by Stephan M?ller called Friday, Saturday, Sunday. Yes, two commas in the actual font name. CSS1 can handle this:

font-family: “Friday, Saturday, Sunday”, cursive

Because it can handle this, the example in the title is syntactically correct. But what the author or tool wrote was almost certainly not what the document author intended.

How do I centre my page?
This is very easy. If we take the code in the last question and change it to this :
CSS
body, html {
height:100%;
}
body {
margin:0;
padding:0;
}
#wrap {
position:relative;
width:780px;
margin:auto; min-height:100%;
}
* html #wrap {
height:100%;
}

you get a page that fits an 800×600 resolution screen without a horizontal scrollbar, which will be centered at higher resolutions.

Must I quote property values?
Generally no. However, values containing white spaces, e.g. font-family names should be quoted as whitespaces surrounding the font name are ignored and whitespaces inside the font name are converted to a single space, thus font names made up of more than one word (e.g.) ‘Times New Roman’ are interpreted as three different names: Times, New and Roman.

Do any WYSIWYG editors support the creation of Style Sheets? Any text-based HTML editors?
As support for CSS in browsers has matured in the last year, both WYSIWYG and Text-based HTML editors have appeared that allow the creation or the assistance of creating Cascading Style Sheet syntax. There are now at least two dozen editors supporting CSS syntax in some form. The W3C maintains an up-to-date list of these WYSIWYG and text-based editors.

Which style specification method should be used? Why?
The answer to this one is tricky. The short answer is: “it depends.” The long answer is, however, another story.

If you are planning on using more than one style specification method in your document, you must also worry about Cascading Order of Style methods (see question 11.) If you are going to use only one method, then some guidelines about the nature of each method need to be kept in mind. The answer to this question is also very much related to the advantages and disadvantages to using each of them (next question.)

Method 1: External Style Sheets (The LINK [-->Index DOT Html] element)
This method should be used if you want to apply the same style to multiple documents. Each document can reference the stand-alone style sheet and use the styles contained within. Using this method, the appearance of many documents can be controlled using a single or small number of style sheets. This can save a LOT of time for an author.

Method 2: Embedded Style Sheets (The Style [-->Index DOT Html] element)
The syntax used with Method 2 is the same as that for Method 1. This method is a happy medium between External Style Sheets and Inline Styles (see below.). It should be used in place of Method 1 if you only want to specify styles for a single document. This method should also be used when you want to specify a style for multiple tag types at once or the list of style definitions is of larger size. Method 3: Inline Styles (STYLE attribute to HTML elements)

If you only have to apply style to one or a few elements in a single document, your best bet will often be an Inline Style. This method attaches a style definition within the HTML element it is modifying.

Justified Text?
You redefine the

tag like:

p {text-align: justify;}

and that renders all

s with justified text.

Another possibility is to define a class, like:

.just {text-align: justify;}

and then you style the paragraphs in question like:



Note that NN 4.xx has problems with the inheritance of styles; that some NN4.xx browsers have a funny way to interpret “justify”; and that you have to have at least one blank space between the last character and the

tag, because otherwise NN 4.xx likes to justify even a three word half-sentence… also, some browsers do a pretty ugly job of rendering justified text, adding spaces between words, instead of spaces between letters, as with word-processing programs.

Why can @import be at the top only?
A style sheet that is imported into another one has a lower ranking in the cascading order: the importing style sheet overrides the imported one. Programmers may recognize this as the same model as in Java, Modula, Object-Pascal, Oberon and other modular programming languages.
However, there is a competing model, well-known to C programmers, where the imported material is not lower in rank, but is expanded in-place and becomes an integral part of the importing document.
By allowing @import only at the top of the style sheet, people that think in terms of the second model (although in principle incorrect) will still get the expected results: as long as the @import is before any other overriding rules, the two models are equivalent.
Btw. In all the modular languages import statements are only allowed at the top. In C, the #include can be put elsewhere, but in practice everybody always puts it at the top. So there may not be that much need to allow @import elsewhere in the style sheet either.

Colored Horizontal Rule?
You can apply styles to Horizontal Rules
in IE without problems, but NN4.xx can only render the silvery HR. But there is a way around it:.rule {border-top-width: 1px;
border-top-style: solid;
border-color: #FF0000;
margin: 0px 2%;}

that, applied to a div, should give you a red HR in NN4.xx and IE, with a 2% gap on the left and right side.

CSSharky Logo
On this page is an Example of a coloured ‘Horizontal Rule’.
Update:
Thanks to Matt Del Vecchio here is an improved format for the Horizontal Rule:

hr { height:0px;
border:0px;
border-top:1px solid #ff1493; }

….this works in both IE and Netscape. It tells the browser to not render the hr rule itself, and then sets a 1px border, which looks just how most folks want to render the hr rule. It uses the
element and that is better than writing your own class as all devices will know what to do with an

tag.Do URL’s have quotes or not?
Double or single quotes in URLs are optional. The tree following examples are equally valid:

BODY {background: url(pics/wave.png) blue}
BODY {background: url(“pics/wave.png”) blue}
BODY {background: url(‘pics/wave.png’) blue}

To what are partial URLs relative?
Partial URLs are relative to the source of the style sheet. The style sheet source can either be linked or embedded. To which source partial URLs are relative to depends on their occurrence.
If a partial URL occurs in a linked style sheet then it is relative to the linked style sheet. The URL of the linked style sheet is the URL of the directory where the sheet is kept.
If a partial URL occurs in an embedded style sheet then it is relative to the embedded style sheet. The URL of the embedded style sheet is the URL of the HTML document in which the sheet is embedded.
Note that Navigator 4.x treats partial URLs as being relative to the HTML document, regardless of the place where the partial URL occurs. This is a serious bug which forces most authors to use absolute URLs in their CSS.

What’s the difference between ‘class’ and ‘id’?
As a person, you may have an ID card – a passport, a driving license or whatever – which identifies you as a unique individual. It’s the same with CSS. If you want to apply style to one element use ‘id’ (e.g.
). In the stylesheet, you identify an ‘id’ with a ‘#’ ie. ‘#myid’…
As a person, if you are in a class, you are one of many. It’s the same with CSS. If you want to apply the same style to more than one element, use ‘class’ (e.g.

). In the stylesheet, you identify a ‘class’ with a ‘.’ ie. ‘.myclass’…
If id’s are more restrictive than classes, then why not just litter your page with classes? Well, I think the main thing is that it’s simply wrong. You don’t put headings in ‘p’ tags – you use ‘h1′, ‘h2′, etc. You don’t (or shouldn’t) make a list by writing asterisks or the little divider bar ( | ) – you use list tags (‘ol’/'ul’ + ‘li’) . You don’t say that your footer is part of a class of elements called ‘footer’ – that’s just stupid – you can’t have more than one footer – it can’t be a class. Of course, practically, the effect is about the same – the rules are applied – but that’s not the point – it’s semantically wrong to do it that way… However, if you try to give more than one element the same id, you will have problems – so don’t do it.
An element may have an id and a class, but that’s usually not necessary. You can also give an element two classes if you need to – like this : class=”class1 class2″. It can be very useful. Needless to say, you can’t give an element two id’s.
Another difference is to do with power. You can give an element an id and a class, but if any of the properties of the two conflict, the id style will win. Ids are more powerful than classes.
One more useful thing about id’s is that they can be used as a link reference. Many people still think that you need named anchors to make links within a page, but that’s simply not true – in fact, the name attribute is deprecated in XHTML except for in forms. One example of using id’s as link references is this page. There are no named anchors on this page – the questions at the top of the page link to the id’s of the divs that the answers are in.I made a 10px-high div, but IE makes it 20px high…
Yeah
This problem sometimes comes up when you make a div just to contain the bottom border of a box, or something like that. In this situation, there’s no text in the div, but IE won’t let the height of the div be smaller than the line-height (which usually depends on the font-size). The answer is to set the font-size to zero.
CSS
#thediv {
font-size:0;
}

How do I place two paragraphs next to each other?
There are several ways to accomplish this effect, although each has its own benefits and drawbacks. We start with the simplest method of positioning two paragraphs next to each other.
Paragraph 1
Paragraph 2

Trickier is this example, which relies on positioning but does not suffer the vertical-overlap problems which plague many other positioning solutions. The problem is that it relies on an incorrect positioning implementation, and will break down dramatically in conformant browsers.


Paragraph 1
Paragraph 2

If floating is not sufficient to your purposes, or you cannot accept display variances in older browsers, then it may be best to fall back to table-based solutions.

Can you use someone else’s Style Sheet without permission?
This is a somewhat fuzzy issue. As with HTML tags, style sheet information is given using a special language syntax. Use of the language is not copyrighted, and the syntax itself does not convey any content – only rendering information.
It is not a great idea to reference an external style sheet on someone else’s server. Doing this is like referencing an in-line image from someone else’s server in your HTML document. This can end up overloading a server if too many pages all over the net reference the same item. It can’t hurt to contact the author of a style sheet, if known, to discuss using the style sheet, but this may not be possible. In any case, a local copy should be created and used instead of referencing a remote copy.

I want my page fonts to look the same everywhere as in?
a) Why are my font sizes different in different browsers ?
b) Why are my font sizes different on different platforms ?
These questions represent the tip of the iceberg of a large topic about which whole essays have been written and a wide range of different views are held.
The WWW was originally devised to present the same content in different presentation situations and for a wide range of readers: on that basis, “looking the same” is not a design criterion, indeed different presentations would be expected to look different.
Some would have it that this original aim is no longer relevant, and that the purpose of web design is now to factor out the differences between display situations and put the author in control of the details of the presentation. Others point out that CSS was designed to give the reader a substantial amount of joint control over this process, and that this is desirable, for example to accommodate users with different visual acuity.
Reading of textual matter on a computer screen is quite a delicate business, what with the relatively coarse pixel structure of a computer display; even with a close knowledge of the display details, it isn’t possible to achieve the detailed control that would be possible, say, on a printer. Whatever one’s aims, the practical truth is that many of the efforts made to guarantee the precise result on the screen have seriously counterproductive side effects in a www situation.
The CSS specifications themselves recommend that authors should not use absolute size units in a situation where the properties of the display are unknown. There’s a lot to be said for flexible design, that in an appropriate situation looks the way you had in mind, but still successfully conveys content and message in a wide range of other browsing situations.
And so, before looking at the technical detail of what can be specified, it’s strongly suggested that you read some of those essays on web design, and reach your own conclusions as to the strengths and weaknesses of the medium, and how you can best exploit the strengths in a web environment, without falling foul of the weaknesses.

When is auto different from 0 in margin properties?
In vertical margins, auto is always equal to 0. In horizontal margins, auto is only equal to 0 if the width property is also auto. Here are three examples, assume that there is a

that is a child of:

Example 1: auto value on the width.

BODY {width: 30em;}
P {width: auto; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;}

Since the width property is auto, the auto values of the two margins will be ignored. The result is a P that is 30em wide, with no margins.

Example 2: two auto margins

BODY {width: 30em;}
P {width: 20em; margin-left: auto; margin-right: auto;}

The P will be 20em wide and the remaining 10em will be divided between the two margins. Paragraphs will be indented 5em at both sides.

Example 3: one auto margin

BODY {width: 30em;}
P {width: 20em; margin-left: 2em; margin-right: auto;}

In this case, paragraphs are 20em wide and are indented 2em on the left side. Since the total width available is 30em, that means the right margin will be 8em.
Note that the default value of width is auto, so setting one or both margins to auto is only useful if you set the width to something other than auto at the same time.

How do I move the list bullet to the left/right?
CSS1 has no properties for setting margins or padding around the bullet of a list item and in most cases the position of the bullet is browser-dependent. This is especially true since most browsers disagreed on whether a bullet is found within the margin or padding of a list item.
In CSS2, properties were introduced to provide greater control over the placement of bullets (which CSS2 calls a “marker”) but these were not widely supported by mid-2001 browsers. Here is an example of changing a marker’s placement:
li:before {display: marker; marker-offset: 22px; content: url(triangle.jpg);}
In this example, a graphic of a triangle is inserted before the content of the li element, set to be a marker (through display: marker;), and given an offset of 22 pixels. Depending on the margin size of the list item, there may not be room for the marker to appear next to the list item’s content.

How does a simple CSS style rule look ?
P { font-family: serif; font-size: 1.2em; }
Here we see a rule with a ‘selector’ P that has been given two style declarations, i.e. two ‘property:value’ pairs.
‘font-family’ and ‘font-size’ are properties of the content of element P , and these properties are assigned the values of ‘serif’ and ’1.2em’ respectively.
A colon ‘:’ is the value assignment symbol in CSS, so using an equal sign ‘=’ instead is an error and is required by the CSS specification to be ignored. Any browser that appears to honor this style is behaving improperly.
For length values a ‘unit’ is always needed and there shall never be any space between a number and its length unit.
A value given as e.g. ’1.2 em’ is an error and is required by the CSS specification to be ignored. Any browser that appears to honor this style is behaving improperly.
A semicolon ‘;’ between declarations is required but it’s also good “rule of thumb” to put a ‘;’ even after the last declaration.
Finally, curly braces ‘{?}’ group one or more declarations into a final CSS rule.

Why are there gaps above and below my form in IE?
A lot of the time, when you find gaps that you can’t account for, they are due the default styles of different browsers – especially the margins and padding. IE gives forms some margins above and below forms while Firefox doesn’t. It’s like with lists – you’ll find bigger padding and margins for lists in IE than in Firefox. Paragraph margins are different, as are the margins on heading tags (h1,h2, etc).

A good way to not get caught out by these problems is to set all margins and padding to zero at the top of your style sheet and then add them as and when you feel the a need for them, in that way, any margins and padding will be the same in different browsers.

CSS
* {
margin:0;
padding:0;
}

If one were to set Text and Link colors using a style sheet, should one also define the background colors for these elements as well?
It is generally true that you should give background or background-color a value, but not necessarily a color value. E.g., if the document has a background image, you would “highlight” all links if you give them a background color.

body { background-image: url(light-texture.png) #FFF; color: #000 }
a:link, a:visited, a:active { color: #00F; background-color: transparent; }

By setting the background-image explicitly to transparent, you lower the risk of another rule in the cascade giving links a background that would highlight them.

How do you override the underlining of hyperlinks?
CSS has the ability to explicitly control the status of underlining for an element – even for hyperlinks. The correct way to do this in an external or document-level style sheet is:
A { text-decoration: none }
and within an anchor element as:
link text

Note: The underlining of hyperlinks is a long-standing visual convention that assists in the visual identification of active hyperlink areas. Many users expect to see hyperlinks underlined and may be confused and/or irritated if they are not used. User-defined style sheets address this user need by allowing the user to have final control over this feature. Unfortunately, wide support for this ability does not yet exist.

How do you show which page you’re on (in a menu)?
If PHP is not available to you, you could use the cascade. Put an id in your body tags and an id in each of your ‘a’ tags for the links.
Let’s say on page one you have this:
CSS

….
page one


In your CSS, you can have something like this:
CSS
#page1 a#page1link {
color:purple;

How can I specify two different sets of link colors?
By classifying each set of links and then attaching desired color to each set.
CSS:

You can name set1 and set2 any way you like as long as the names are made up of letters a-z, A-Z, digits 0-9, period, hyphen, escaped characters, Unicode characters 161-255, as well as any Unicode character as a numeric code.
Note: to avoid conflict with user’s settings a background property (background color) should also be specified together with the color property (foreground color).

How can I place multiple blocks next to each other?
In theory, the following will produce 4 “columns”:
Block 1
Block 2
Block 3
Block 4

Each “column” will occupy 25% of the screen. This relies on a correct implementation of float, which cannot be said of many legacy browsers. If you cannot accept display variances in older browsers, then it may be best to fall back to table-based solutions.

2. By making the block an inline element and then use text-align property
text



This technique depends on the incorrect implementation of text-align behavior in older browsers. It will likely cease to work in future CSS-conformant browsers, and eventually it will probably not be a viable solution.

Document Style Semantics and Specification Language (DSSSL)?
Document Style Semantics and Specification Language is an international standard, an expression language, a styling language for associating processing (formatting and transformation) with SGML documents, for example XML.

What is Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL)?
XSL is a proposed styling language for formatting XML (eXtensible Markup Language) documents. The proposal was submitted to the W3C by Microsoft, Inso, and ArborText.

Which font names are available on all platforms ?
The simple answer is “None” which is why CSS offers five generic font names as ‘serif’, ‘sans-serif’, ‘cursive’, ‘fantasy’ and ‘monospace’. Never put any of these generic font names in quotes.

A CSS aware browser should make a suitable choice from the available fonts in response to each of those generic names.
Specifying any other font name in a www environment comes out as a suggestion only, that may or may not be acknowledged by a browser.
The problem with using names of specific fonts is that there is little point in naming fonts that few users will have, so you’re down to listing a few mass-market font names. This will then override any superior selection that a minority of discerning readers may have made for themselves.
Note also that fonts may differ in their character repertoire, but this is often not evident from the font name itself: by selecting an inappropriate font name, you might prevent internationalized content from displaying correctly for a proportion of users.

Why does Netscape lose my styles ?
Netscape 4.x has poor support for CSS. Having said that, the following points should be noted.
Invalid HTML will almost certainly cause Netscape to ignore your CSS suggestions at some point. You will find that valid HTML is your best friend, but for Netscape to work properly you must ensure that all elements in your markup which permit closing tags are explicitly closed.
Check and correct your CSS suggestions for the very same reason, Netscape 4.x is in fact doing “the right thing”, as per CSS specs (as opposed to MSIE) when it ignores style rules with errors.
Netscape 4.x has what’s called an “inheritance problem” into its TABLE element. It can be argued that NS is all within its right to behave as it does in this case, but since the workaround is quite simple it’s easy enough to just use it and be done with it.
Let’s say you want your TABLE content to “look the same” as your BODY content? “Redundant” styling comes to your help as in e.g. BODY, TABLE, TH, TD { /* insert your styles here */ }
On a generic level, Netscape 4.x likes to have style rules applied directly to the elements where they are needed. You can never really trust the inheritance principle to work correctly at any level in Netscape 4.x.

Why is it my ‘:hover’ declaration for links does not work ?
Assuming you have already checked that your style sheet declarations do conform to correct CSS syntax, it could be that you have overlooked the importance of a correct order of style declarations for links.
The CSS2 specification makes this following note on the importance of placing the dynamic pseudo-classes ‘:hover’ and ‘:active’ in correct positions in a list of style declarations.
Note that the ‘a:hover’ must be placed after the ‘a:link’ and ‘a:visited’ rules, since otherwise the cascading rules will hide the ‘color’ property of the ‘a:hover’ rule.

=================
(Q) How many types we can write the css style sheets?

(A) There are three types we can write style sheets.

Inline style sheet

Internal style sheet

External style sheet

 (Q) What is  Css Hack Code  for ie8, ie7?

(A)  Css hack code for ie8 is \9

Ex:  .class{ padding-top:10px\9;} – It effects only in ie8 browser

Css hack code for ie7 is *+html

Ex:  *+html .class{ padding-top:10px;} – It effects only in ie8 browser

(Q) How can we write margin and padding format in css code?

(A) Margin : top right bottom left

Padding : top right bottom left

(Q) How many types of CSS rules and what are they?

(A) There are two types of CSS rules: ruleset and at-rule. Ruleset identifies selector or selectors and declares style which is to be attached to that selector or selectors. For example P {text-indent: 10pt} is a CSS rule. CSS rulesets consist of two parts: selector, e.g. P and declaration, e.g. {text-indent: 10pt}.

P {text-indent: 10pt} – CSS rule (ruleset)
{text-indent: 10pt} – CSS declaration
text-indent – CSS property
10pt – CSS value

At-rule is a rule that applies to the whole style sheet and not to a specific selector only (like in ruleset). They all begin with the @ symbol followed by a keyword made up of letters a-z, A-Z, digits 0-9, dashes and escaped characters, e.g. @import or @font-face.

(Q) What is shorthand property?

(A) Shorthand property is a property made up of individual properties that have a common “addressee”. For example properties: font-weight, font-style, font-variant, font-size, font property font, e.g.:

H1 .    {font-weight: bold;

font-style: italic;

font-variant: small-caps;

font-size: 160%;

font-family: serif}

Can be all shorthanded to a space separated list:

H1 {font: bold italic small-caps 160% serif}

Note: To make things even simpler the line-height property can be specified together with the font-size property:

H1 {font: bold italic small-caps 160%/170% serif}

(Q) Can I attach more than one declaration to a selector?

(A) Yes. If more than one declaration is attached to a selector they must appear in a semi colon separated list, e.g.;

Selector {declaration1; declaration2}
P {background: white; color: black}

(Q) What is cascade?

(A) Cascade is a method of defining the weight (importance) of individual styling rules thus allowing conflicting rules to be sorted out should such rules apply to the same selector.

Declarations with increased weight take precedence over declaration with normal weight:

P {color: white ! important}  /* increased weight */
P (color: black} /* normal weight */

(Q) What is the difference between css2 and css3?

(A) The biggest difference between CSS2 and CSS3 is that CSS3 has been split up into different sections, called modules. Each of these modules is making it’s way through the W3C in various stages of the recommendation process.

(Q) What is Embedded Style?

(A) Embedded Style Sheets are preset within the web page. This is very useful in making the collection of all the styles applied to the page and making them appear in a common place under the element or tag which is placed in the page header.

An embded style which can be written with in the head tag see below
<html>
<head>
<style type= “text/css”>
embded style goes here
body elements
</body</html>

 (Q) What are the issues encountered with IE z-index?

(A) z-index is used to show the order of the object

(Q) What is the default margin and padding of h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6?

(A) heading 1 (h1)
margin-left: 0px margin-right: 0px; margin-top: 8px; margin-bottom: 8px;

heading 2 (h2)
margin-left: 0px margin-right: 0px; margin-top: 10px; margin-bottom: 10px;

heading 3 (h3)
margin-left: 0px margin-right: 0px; margin-top: 12px; margin-bottom: 12px;

heading 4 (h4)
margin-left: 0px margin-right: 0px; margin-top: 16px; margin-bottom: 16px;

heading 5 (h5)
margin-left: 0px margin-right: 0px; margin-top: 20px; margin-bottom: 20px;

heading 6 (h6)
margin-left: 0px margin-right: 0px; margin-top: 28px; margin-bottom: 28px;

(Q) What are the rules to be followed for CSS-names?

(A) The name can contain characters a-z, A-Z, digits 0-9, period, hyphen, escaped characters, Unicode characters 161-255, as well as any Unicode character as a numeric code, however, they cannot start with a dash or a digit.

(Q) How do you display hyperlinks without underlines?

(A) A:link { text-decoration: none } —– for normal, unvisited links, no underline;
A:active { text-decoration: none } — active is for link appearance while you’re clicking
A:visited { text-decoration: none } — visited is for previously visited links

(Q) What is syntax for Grouping in CSS?

(A) For example One can use grouping syntax as below:
H1 { font: bold 10pt/16pt helvetica }

In the above the properties font-weight, font-size, font-family are combined by using grouping syntax.

(Q)  What is floating elements in CSS?

(A) The question is not entirely correct in its sense. There are HTML elements which you can float with the help of CSS e.g. a DIV element or text/image inside an HTML element. You can use float:[left | right]; property to float HTML elements inside its own container (i.e. its parent element).

(Q) What is the use of Contexual Selector?

(A) Contextual selects are merely strings of two or more selectors seperated by white space. These selectors can be assigned normal properties ,and due to the rules of cascading order, they will take precedence over simple selectors. For example , the contextual selectors in

p em {background: blue} is p em.

This rule says that emphasized text within a paragraph should have blue background.

(Q)  How do you rate CSS types as per priority and what are the reasons liked Embedded, External and Inline? Which one gets top priority and why?

(A) Choosing between External, Embedded and Inline CSS is critical. It is always advisable to think long term. Even when you are working on a smaller module, you never know its future. Moreover, one must remember that CSS is all about ‘look and feel’ (style) while HTML is content; so better keep they separate.
As far as possible, avoid Inline styles. If you are very sure that particular CSS classes are relevant only to the current web page, it might be a good idea to opt for Embedded under certain circumstances. And of course, there are no cons while considering External stylesheet.
One thing is very important while using External stylesheets is the nomenclature. There are no fixed set of rules to follow but if you consider a broader view, you can easily work out a fair plan for CSS class names.
To start with, one can study some popular websites.

(Q) What is the first-line pseudo-element in CSS?

(A) The “first-line” pseudo-element is used to add special styles to the first line of the text in a selector:

Syntax:

selector:pseudo-element {property: value}

 CSS classes can also be used with pseudo-elements:

selector.class:pseudo-element {property: value}

(Q) What is grouping in CSS?

Grouping is gathering (1) into a comma separated list two or more selectors that share the same style or (2) into a semicolon separated list two or more declarations that are attached to the same selector (2).

(Q) The selectors LI, P with class name .first and class .footnote share the same style, e.g.:
LI {font-style: italic}
P.first {font-style: italic}
.footnote {font-style: italic}

To reduce the size of style sheets and also save some typing time they can all be grouped in one list.
LI, P.first, .footnote {font-style: italic}

2. The declarations {font-style: italic} and {color: red} can be attached to one selector, e.g.:
H2 {font-style: italic}
H2 {color: red}
and can also be grouped into one list:
H2 {font-style: italic; color: red}
- See more at: http://thestudentdaily.com/2011/12/css-interview-questions-and-answers-for-freshers/1055/#sthash.Ft6vDVAK.dpuf


==========================================================================
===========================================================================
++++++++++++++++++++++=html++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
1) What is HTML?

HTML is short for HyperText Markup Language, and is the language of the World Wide Web. It is the standard text formatting language used for creating and displaying pages on the Web. HTML documents are made up of two things: the content and the tags that formats it for proper display on pages.



2) What are tags?

Content is placed in between HTML tags 0in order to properly format it. It makes use of the less than symbol (<) and the greater than symbol (>). A slash symbol is also used as a closing tag.



3) Do all HTML tags come in pair?

No, there are single HTML tags that does not need a closing tag. Examples are the <img> tag and <br> tags.



4) What are some of the common lists that can be used when designing a page?

You can insert any or a combination of the following list types:
- ordered list
- unordered list
- definition list
- menu list
- directory list
Each of this list types makes use of a different tag set to compose



5) How do you insert a comment in html?

Comments in html begins with “<!–”nd ends with “–>”.



6) Do all character entities display properly on all systems?

No, there are some character entities that cannot be displayed when the operating system that the browser is running on does not support the characters. When that happens, these characters are displayed as boxes.



7) What is image map?

Image map lets you link to many different web pages using a single image. You can define shapes in images that you want to make part of an image mapping.



8 ) What is the advantage of collapsing white space?

White spaces are blank sequence of space characters, which is actually treated as a single space character in html. Because the browser collapses multiple space into a single space, you can indent lines of text without worrying about multiple spaces. This enables you to organize the html code into a much more readable format.



9) Can attribute values be set to anything or are there specific values that they accept?

Some attribute values can be set to only predefined values. Other attributes can accept any numerical value that represents the number of pixels for a size.



10) How do you insert a copyright symbol on a browser page?

To insert the copyright symbol, you need to type &copy; or & #169; in an HTML file.



11) How do you create links to sections within the same page?

Links can be created using the <a> tag, with referencing through the use of the number (#) symbol. For example, you can have one line as <a href=”#topmost”>BACK TO TOP</a>, which would result in the words “BACK TO TOP” appearing on the webpage and links to a bookmark named topmost. You then create a separate tag command like <a name=”topmost”> somewhere on the top of the same webpage so that the user will be linked to that spot when he clicked on “BACK TO TOP”.



12) Is there any way to keep list elements straight in an html file?

By using indents, you can keep the list elements straight. If you indent each subnested list in further than the parent list that contains it, you can at a glance determine the various lists and the elements that it contains.



13) If you see a web address on a magazine, to which web page does it point?

Every web page on the web can have a separate web address. Most of these addresses are relative to the top-most web page. The published web address that appears within magazines typically points this top-most page. From this top level page, you can access all other pages within the web site.



14) What is the use of using alternative text in image mapping?

When you use image maps, it can easily become confusing and difficult to determine which hotspots corresponds with which links. Using alternative text lets you put a descriptive text on each hotspot link.



15) Do older html files work on newer browsers?

Yes, older html files are compliant to the HTML standard. Most older files work on the newer browsers, though some features may not work.



16) Does a hyperlink apply to text only?

No, hyperlinks can be used on text as well as images. That means you can convert an image into a link that will allow user to link to another page when clicked. Just surround the image within the <a href=” “>…</a> tag combinations.



17) If the user’s operating system does not support the needed character, how can the symbol be represented?

In cases wherein their operating system does not support a particular character, it is still possible to display that character by showing it as an image instead.



18) How do you change the number type in the middle of a list?

The <li> tag includes two attributes – type and value. The type attribute can be used to change the numbering type for any list item. The value attribute can change the number index.



19) What are style sheets?

Style sheets enable you to build consistent, transportable, and well-defined style templates. These templates can be linked to several different web pages, making it easy to maintain and change the look and feel of all the web pages within a site.



20) What bullet types are available?

With ordered lists, you can select to use a number of different list types including alphabetical and Roman numerals. The type attribute for unordered lists can be set to disc, square, or circle.



21) How do you create multicolored text in a webpage?

To create text with different colors, use the <font color=”color”>…</font> tags for every character that you want to apply a color. You can use this tag combination as many times as needed, surrounding a single character or an entire word.



22) Why are there both numerical and named character entity values?

The numerical values are taken from the ASCII values for the various characters, but these can be difficult to remember. Because of this, named character entity values were created to make it easier for web page designers to use.



23) What is the advantage of grouping several checkboxes together?

Although checkboxes don’t affect one another, grouping checkboxes together helps to organize them. Checkbox buttons can have their own name and do not need to belong to a group. A single web page can have many different groups of checkboxes.



24) What will happen if you overlap sets of tags?

If two sets of html tags are overlapped, only the first tag will be recognized. You will recognize this problem when the text does not display properly on the browser screen.



25) What are applets?

Applets are small programs that can be embedded within web pages to perform some specific functionality, such as computations, animations, and information processing. Applets are written using the Java language.



26) What if there is no text between the tags or if a text was omitted by mistake? Will it affect the display of the html file?

If there is no text between the tags, then there is nothing to format, so no formatting will appear. Some tags, especially tags without a closing tag like the <img> tag, do not require any text between them.



27) Is it possible to set specific colors for table borders?

You can specify a border color using style sheets, but the colors for a table that does not use style sheets will be the same as the text color.



28) How do you create a link that will connect to another web page when clicked?

To create hyperlinks, or links that connect to another web page, use the href tag. The general format for this is: <a href=”site”>text</a>
Replace “site” with the actual page url that is supposed to be linked to when the text is clicked.



29) What other ways can be used to align images and wrap text?

Tables can be used to position text and images. Another useful way to wrap text around an image is to use style sheets.



30) Can a single text link point to two different web pages?

No. The <a> tag can accept only a single href attribute, and it can point to only a single web page.



31) What is the difference between the directory and menu lists and the unordered list?

The key differences is that the directory and menu lists do not include attributes for changing the bullet style.



32) Can you change the color of bullets?

The bullet color is always the same as that of the first character in the list litem. If you surround the <li> and the first character with a set of <font> tags with the color attribute set, the bullet color and the first character will be a different color from the text.



33) What are the limits of the text field size?

The default size for a text field is around 13 characters, but if you include the size attribute, you can set the size value to be as low as 1. The maximum size value will be determined by the browser width. If the size attribute is set to 0, the size will be set to the default size of 13 characters.



34) Do <th> tags always need to come at the start of a row or column?

Any <tr> tag can be changed to a <th> tag. This causes the text contained within the <th> tag to be displayed as bold in the browser. Although <th> tags are mainly used for headings, they do not need to be used exclusively for headings.



35) What is the relationship between the border and rule attributes?

Default cell borders, with a thickness of 1 pixel, are automatically added between cells if the border attribute is set to a nonzero value. Likewise, If the border attribute is not included, a default 1-pixel border appears if the rules attribute is added to the <table> tag.



36) What is a marquee?

A marquee allows you to put a scrolling text in a web page. To do this, place whatever text you want to appear scrolling within the <marquee> and </marquee> tags.



37) Are <br> tags the only way to separate sections of text?

No. The <br> tag is only one way to separate lines of text. Other tags, like the <p> tag and <blockquote> tag, also separate sections of text.



38) Are there instances where text will appear outside of the browser?

By default, the text is wrapped to appear within the browser window. However, if the text is part of a table cell with a defined width, the text could extend beyond the browser window.



39) How are active links different from normal links?

The default color for normal and active links is blue. Some browsers recognize an active link when the mouse cursor is placed over that link; others recognize active links when the link has the focus. Those that don’t have a mouse cursor over that link is considered a normal link.



40) Do style sheets limit the number of new style definitions that can be included within the brackets?

Style sheets do not limit the number of style definitions that can be included within the brackets for a given selector. Every new style definition, however, must be separated from the others by a semicolon symbol.



41) Can I specify fractional weight values such as 670 or 973 for font weight?

Implementation largely depends on the browser, but the standard does not support fractional weight values. Acceptable values must end with two zeroes.



42) What is the hierarchy that is being followed when it comes to style sheets?

If a single selector includes three different style definitions, the definition that is closest to the actual tag takes precedence. Inline style takes priority over embedded style sheets, which takes priority over external style sheets.



43) Can several selectors with class names be grouped together?

You can define several selectors with the same style definition by separating them with commas. This same technique also works for selectors with class names.



44) What happens if you open the external CSS file in a browser?

If you try to open the external CSS file in a browser, the browser cannot open the file, because the file has a different extension. The only way to use an external CSS file is to reference it using <link/> tag within another html document.



45) What happens if the list-style-type property is used on a non-list element like a paragraph?

If the list-style-type property is used on a non-list element like a paragraph, the property will be ignored and have no effect on the paragraph.



46) When is it appropriate to use frames?

Frames can make navigating a site much easier. If the main links to the site are located in a frame that appears at the top or along the edge of the browser, the content for those links can be displayed in the remainder of the browser window.



47) What happens if the number of values in the rows or cols attribute doesn’t add up to 100 percent?

The browser sizes the frames relative to the total sum of the values. If the cols attribute is set to 100%, 200%, the browser displays two vertical frames with the second being twice as big as the first.
- See more at: http://www.fresherventure.net/frequently-asked-html-interview-questions-and-answers/#sthash.NpCP2UE1.dpuf

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